Last Updated: Jan 15 2009 - Able2Act

Fact Sheet for Afghan National Police

Country: Afghanistan
Description: The process of reconstituting the national Afghan police force began with a conference in Berlin in February 2002. Donor nations settled on the need to create ?a multiethnic, sustainable, and countrywide 62,000-member professional police service.? Germany, the lead nation in the training of Afghan National Police (ANP), had built a force of more than 61,000 police by 2007 with training based at the Kabul Police Academy. Between 2002 and 2005, U.S. involvement in the creation of the ANP was under the auspices of the State Department and included more than $4.1 billion in funding. Since 2005, however, the U.S. responsibility for the ANP has shifted to the Department of Defense and since 2007 Germany?s primary role is being taken over by the European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL). The 2005 handover of responsibility between the U.S. Departments of State and Defense resulted in an additional $2 billion of funding for equipment and increased pay for police. Currently, the U.S. military is involved in an extensive reform effort to retrain the ANP and increase its end size from 62,000 to 72,000 with $2.5 billion allocated for the effort.As the primary national law enforcement agency, the roles and responsibilities of the ANP are set forth in law. According to Article 5 of the Police Law, the roles of the ANP include:?Ensuring and maintaining public order and security; Ensuring and protecting the security and legal rights and freedoms of individuals and society; Preventing crime, discovering crimes and arresting suspects; Protecting public and private property; Fighting against the cultivation of poppies and marijuana, and the production and trafficking of illegal drugs; Fighting against organized crime and terrorism; Regulating road traffic; Responding to and assisting victims of natural disasters; and Safeguarding borders, preventing smuggling, and controlling check posts at borders and international airports.?OrganizationThe Afghan National Police falls under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior (MoI) and extends down to the district level, with a chief of police assigned to ?each of Afghanistan?s 34 provinces and approximately 400 districts.?[ Prior to 2006, the majority of provincial police chiefs reported directly to the MoI. In an effort to streamline the coordination of security and to diminish the influence of governors resistant to the authority of the central government, the ANP chain of command was changed. Five regional ANP commands, equivalent to the regional command structure of the Afghan National Army (ANA), were established in Kabul, Gardez, Kandahar, Herat, and Mazar-e Sharif. The chain of command now runs from ?1) the Minister of Interior, to 2) the Deputy Minister for Security Affairs, to 3) Regional Commanders, to 4) provincial Police Chief, to 5) district Chiefs of Police? and governors are specifically excluded from the ANP command structure.[Currently the ANP is composed of five formal divisions and one that is temporary. First, the Afghan Uniformed Police (AUP) is the largest branch and is responsible for the day-to-day law enforcement throughout Afghanistan. Under the revised strength figures, the total number of AUP will increase from 31,000 to 45,000. Responsibility for border security to include the prevention of border crossing by insurgents, drug trafficking and other forms of smuggling falls to the Afghan Border Police (ABP). The ABP is divided into eight brigades, but it is currently being restructured into five zones that correspond to the ANA/ANP Regional Commands. The ABP man 13 border checkpoints and patrol the border. At only 65 percent of its original authorized personnel strength, the ABP is facing serious manning problems especially due to the recent increase of total end strength from 12,000 to 18,000. Under the new figures, the ABP is only 44 percent manned. Created in 2006, the Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP) is responsible for ?maintain[ing] civil order in Afghanistan?s seven largest cities, to provide a robust and mobile police presence in remote high-threat areas, and to serve as a rapid-reaction force to support other police in an emergency.? The Afghanistan Highway Police (AHP) were responsible for maintaining order and security along the country?s primary highways. While the AHP officially were phased out and ordered to integrate into the AUP, due in part to their ?corruption and ineffectiveness?, many refused to follow the redeployment orders. Counter-narcotics enforcement and investigation is the responsibility of the fifth formal branch or division of the ANP, the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA).In an attempt to deal with elevated security risks and increased insurgent and criminal activity, the Afghanistan National Auxiliary Police (ANAP) were formed. Officially, the ANAP are separate from the ANP and were designed as a ?quick fix? solution. Recruitment for the ANA was aimed at existing militias in local areas with some degree of loyalty to the government in Kabul. Members of the ANAP receive condensed training, but wear the same uniform as the ANP (with their own designation patch), receive the same monthly salary of US470 and sign a contract for one year. Presently, the ANAP is viewed as a temporary force, but it is likely that the members will be integrated into the regular ANP after their initial contract year.Progress and ObstaclesDespite achieving its original manning goals of 62,000, the ANP is beset by serious problems. First, the ANP has been described as ineffective, ill-trained and ill-equipped. This is due...

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